{All About} What is Bio Digester, Official License and Highlights

Bio Digester: Swachh Bharat Abhiyan has always been in force right from it’s launch. Government of India has constantly made various efforts and has come up with a number of commendable innovations. Bio-digester by  DRDO ( Defence Research Development Organisation ) is one of the revolutionary innovations in the area of sanitation and hygiene. Bio digesters are a medium to control the problem of open defecation in India. Bio digesters will help in completely eradicating the manual scavenging practice from India.

What is bio-digester?

The DRDO ( Defence Research Development Organisation ) department has developed an absolutely modern-day innovation called Bio Digester. It’s an eco-friendly innovation that helps in resolving the various consequences and problems occurred due to un-decomposed human waste material.

Bio-digester is a large equipment which features of a bio-toilet attached with bio-digester tanks. These tanks have special bacteria (microbial inoculum) which converts the human waste material into biogas and reusable water.

bio digester

Why Bio digester is required?

Proper disposal of human waste material  is one of the most challenging situations for government of India. Faecal matter when not decomposed properly can lead to spread of unhygienic conditions, various deadly diseases like, dysentery, diarrhoea, amoebiasis, viral hepatitis, cholera, typhoid which can adversely affect the health of population and can prove to be fatal also. It also leads to contamination of drinking ground water. Bio Digester technology was first proposed for Indian army posted in highly low temperatures like siachin glaciers etc. Now, it has spread all over India right from villages to mountains & railways.

Highlights of Bio-Digester

Name of technologyBio-Digester
Launched byDRDO
Full Form of DRDODefence Research Development Organisation
ObjectiveTo manage problems caused due to undecomposed human waste material

What are the key features of Bio Digester by DRDO?

Defence Research Development Organisation (DRDO) has come up with an idea of Bio Digester which contain following salient features:

  1. It is priced at pocket-friendly rates and is definitely a cost-effective innovation.
  2. It does not require high maintenance and can be managed with minimal care and assistance.
  3. There is absolutely no requirement for sludge removal.
  4. There is no need for (P-trap) water seal in toilet.
  5. There occurs more than 99% organic matter reduction.
  6. There occurs more than 99% pathogens reduction.
  7. Inflammable and Odourless biogas gets generated through bio digester.
  8. Bio digesters have a great tolerating power for toilet cleaning agents.
  9. Bio digester technology has been transferred to industries for the purpose of commercialization.

What is the official license period for a bio digester?

According to all terms and conditions proposed by the government of India, the official license period for a bio digester is five (5) years. The license period is subjected to renewals meeting all terms and conditions. The limited number of licences available as on date are 40. Each license fee costs Rs. 15,00,000 (Rupees fifteen lakhs only). The first come first serve basis is practiced.

What Royalty Is charged for a bio digester?

The government of India did not charged any royalty for Bio Digesters upto Dec 2019. But, afterwards as per DRDO guidelines issued royalty is being charged for ToT.

How does a bio digester function?

A Bio Digester indulges into an anaerobic process during which certain bacteria feed on the human waste material collected in a tank. The bacteria actively acts on the matter and degrades the faecal matter completely. All this enrichment of microbes takes place at low temperature.

The tank used in a Bio Digester that holds all the human waste material can be customized as per the customers requirement. All the dimensions and designs of tanks can be altered according to number of users, climatic conditions of a particular area, and also the availability of water supply.
These special tanks can operate even in a temperature range of (-20 degrees to 50 degrees).

What steps are involved in bio-digester working?

A standard Bio Digester normally contains an inlet, outlet, and in between four chambers.

  • The waste gets entered into Chamber 1 though the inlet provided. There, the charged bacteria colonies start acting upon the faecal matter.
  • It further then moves to chamber 2 & chamber 3 successively. With bacteria constantly reacting upon the waste, it gets more cleaner.
  • In chamber no. 4, all the solid waste is churned out and clean water rich in nutrients is obtained.
  • Chamber 4 is also provided with a gas vent pipe so that all the odours gets eliminated from the water.
  • Now, the clean nutrient rich water gets out from the outlet with no scum present. It then gets collected in a water collection tank which then further can be used for various purposes like in fields, etc.

How to obtain a bio digester license?

The DRDO has issued certain segments for different Bio Digester requirements. Let’s have a look at them as follows:

  • For High Altitude Regions
  • For Plain Regions
  • For Bacteria Functioning
  • For transports such as Buses, Railways, etc.

What are the advantages of a bio digester?

Following are the listed advantages of Bio Digester :

  • The tank being properly covered does not allow faecal matter to be visible from outside.
  • There is no such situation of clogging.
  • After the process, the Effluent that comes outside is absolutely free from bad odour or any waste in the form of solid.
  • There is no need for manual removal of any solid waste
  • Bio digesters don’t need any additional bacteria for functioning.
  • The chances of infestation of rodent, flies, and cockroaches is absolutely null.
  • It requires low space for installation.
  • It’s easy to transport and install in any geographical condition.
  • It is highly viable to install in any climatic condition throughout the country.
  • It is absolutely maintenance free and does not require the feed of microbial inoculum again & again. It multiplies on it’s own for the whole lifetime.

What are the various areas where bio digester is used?

The revolutionary Bio Digester technology has been implemented in various sectors. Let’s have a look at some of them:

  1. Independent houses
  2. Flat/Apartment blocks societies.
  3. Various educational institutions.
  4. Offices and other work places.
  5. Hostels/Other Accommodations.
  6. Indian Railways
  7. Army Cantonments

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